Direct emissions and indirect emissions from industry in Indonesia make up 23% and 15.6% of energy-related CO₂ emissions, respectively. Even thoughsome programmes have been implemented, Indonesia lacks effective policies to increase energy efficiency or to reduce emissions and decarbonise the sector.

Buildings emissions occur directly (burning fuels for heating, cooking, etc) and indirectly (from grid-electricity for air conditioning, appliances, etc.). Buildings-related emissions per capita are under half the G20 average as of 2021, but in contrast to the slightly declining G20 average, Indonesia’s per capita building emissions increased by 52% (2016–2021), from a very low base.

Source: Climate Transparency Report 2022